The Four Drives

Research by Harvard Business School’s Lawrence and Nohria suggests that people are guided by four basic emotional needs, or drives, that are the product of our common evolutionary heritage:

Acquire (competitive). Obtain scarce goods, including intangibles such as social status.

Bond (cooperative). Form connections with individuals and groups.

Comprehend. Satisfy our curiosity and master the world around us.

Defend. Protect against external threats and promote justice.